Nielsen Hayden genealogy

Gilbert de Clare

Male 1243 - 1295  (52 years)


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Generation: 1

  1. 1.  Gilbert de Clare was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire, England (son of Richard de Clare and Maud de Lacy); died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: 1299

    Notes:

    Called "Red Gilbert" and "The Red Earl". Earl of Gloucester. Earl of Hertford. Steward of St. Edmund's Abbey. Held, among many other manors and lordships, the lordship of Glamorgan, one of the most wealthy holdings in the Welsh Marches. Built Caerphilly Castle.

    A turbulent figure who fought on both sides of the Second Barons' War of 1263-64, first alongside Simon de Montfort at the battle of Lewes (where according to some accounts he personally took Henry III prisoner), and then on the side of the king, commanding one of the royal divisions at the decisive battle of Evesham where de Montfort was killed.

    His subsequent relationships with Henry III and Edward I were complex and fraught. As one of the two or three most powerful non-royal individuals in the realm, he was both a desirable ally and also the very model of the kind of overweening subject that Edward was determined to tame -- and ultimately did.

    As a side note, it is worth noting that while de Clare was still allied to the baronial party, he led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, which took place while other rebel leaders were conducting similar massacres in London. Ian Stone writes in "The Rebel Barons of 1264 and the Commune of London," quoted here: "The Dunstable annals report rumours that the Jews of London were preparing to betray the citizens: they had Greek fire to burn the city, copies of the keys to the city gates, and subterranean passages to each gate. Such tales were used to excuse an outbreak of looting and murder. One chronicler says that the Jews were suspected of betraying the barons and citizens, and almost all were killed. Another says that the Jewish quarter was pillaged, and any Jews who were caught were stripped, robbed and murdered. Estimates of the number killed range from 200 to 500, with the remainder forcibly converted or imprisoned (or, looking at it another way, the rest were saved by the justices and the mayor, who sent them to the Tower for protection). The chronicler Wykes, who tended to be less favourable to the baronial party, singled out the baronial leader John fitz John, who was said to have killed the leading Jew, Kok son of Abraham, with his own hands, and seized his treasure. Fitz John was then forced to share the proceeds with Simon de Montfort. It is possible that de Montfort was taking the Jewish treasure, not to enrich himself, but to finance his forces. At the same time, the cash of Italian and French merchants, deposited in religious houses around London, was also seized and taken to the city."

    Gilbert married Alice de Lusignan in 1253. Alice (daughter of Hugh XI "le Brun" de Lusignan and Yolande of Brittany) was born after Oct 1236 in of Angoulême, Aquitaine, France; died in May 1290. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]

    Gilbert married Joan of Acre in May 1290 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. Joan (daughter of Edward I, King of England and Eleanor of Castile, Queen Consort of England) was born in 1272 in Acre, Palestine; died on 23 Apr 1307 in Clare, Suffolk, England; was buried in Austin Friars, Clare, Suffolk, England. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]

    Notes:

    Royal Ancestry gives the date of their marriage as 23 April 1290; Complete Peerage as 30 April; the ODNB as "early May."

    Children:
    1. Margaret de Clare was born about 1292 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales; died on 9 Apr 1342; was buried in Queenhithe, London, England.
    2. Eleanor de Clare was born in Oct 1292 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales; died on 30 Jun 1337.
    3. Elizabeth de Clare was born in Nov 1295 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales; died on 4 Nov 1360.

Generation: 2

  1. 2.  Richard de Clare was born on 4 Aug 1222 in of Clare, Suffolk, England (son of Gilbert de Clare and Isabel Marshal); died in Jul 1262 in Ashenfield, Waltham, Kent, England; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: 15 Jul 1262, Ashenfield, Waltham, Kent, England

    Notes:

    Earl of Gloucester; Earl of Hertford; High Marshal and Chief Butler to the Archbishop of Canterbury; Privy Councillor 1255, 1258; Warden of the Isle of Portland, Weymouth, and Wyke, 1257.

    From the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography:

    Richard de Clare was a minor at the time of his father's death, and heir to one of the greatest collections of estates and lordships in all of England and Wales. His wardship and marriage were thus matters of the keenest interest to the politically powerful and ambitious of the day. The justiciar Hubert de Burgh, using his position in the government of Henry III, managed to have custody of Richard assigned to himself. On Hubert's fall from power in 1232, the king transferred custody of both Richard and his lands to the new royal favourites, Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, and his nephew Peter des Rivaux. Hubert de Burgh's wife, in an apparent effort to rescue the family fortunes, secretly married Richard de Clare to her daughter Margaret; but the marriage was apparently never consummated, and was in any event mooted by Margaret's death in 1237. In the meantime both Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux had themselves fallen from power in 1234, and thereafter King Henry kept the wardship in his own hands, although allowing custody of at least some of the Clare lands to be secured by Richard de Clare's uncle Gilbert Marshal, earl of Pembroke. During this time the king began searching for a suitable marriage. A proposed arrangement with the great French comital family, the Lusignans, fell through, and in 1238 Richard de Clare was married to Maud, daughter of John de Lacy, earl of Lincoln. The prime mover in the marriage negotiations seems to have been the king's brother, Richard of Cornwall, who was Richard de Clare's stepfather, having married the widowed Isabel Marshal in 1231. Notwithstanding his marriage Clare remained the ward of the king until 1243, when he came of age and received both official seisin of his inheritance and formal dubbing to knighthood.

    The complexities, intricacies, and rivalries involved in the story of Richard de Clare's wardship are an excellent case study of the stakes and resources at issue when contemplating the lives of the upper aristocracy in the thirteenth century. A connection to Richard de Clare was a prize well worth pursuing at full tilt. His inheritance was vast. [...] Richard de Clare was, by every criterion--annual income (close to £4000), knight's fees (nearly 500), and both the sheer number of and the strategic location of his estates and lordships--easily the richest and potentially the most powerful baron, next to the members of the immediate royal family, in the British Isles (excluding Scotland) as a whole.

    From Wikipedia:

    He joined in the Barons' letter to the Pope in 1246 against the exactions of the Curia in England. He was among those in opposition to the King's half-brothers, who in 1247 visited England, where they were very unpopular, but afterwards he was reconciled to them.

    In August 1252/3 the King crossed over to Gascony with his army, and to his great indignation the Earl refused to accompany him and went to Ireland instead. In August 1255 he and John Maunsel were sent to Edinburgh by the King to find out the truth regarding reports which had reached the King that his son-in-law, Alexander III, King of Scotland, was being coerced by Robert de Roos and John Balliol. If possible, they were to bring the young King and Queen to him. The Earl and his companion, pretending to be two of Roos's knights, obtained entry to Edinburgh Castle, and gradually introduced their attendants, so that they had a force sufficient for their defense. They gained access to the Scottish Queen, who made her complaints to them that she and her husband had been kept apart. They threatened Roos with dire punishments, so that he promised to go to the King.

    Meanwhile the Scottish magnates, indignant at their Castle of Edinburgh's being in English hands, proposed to besiege it, but they desisted when they found they would be besieging their King and Queen. The King of Scotland apparently traveled South with the Earl, for on 24 September they were with King Henry III at Newminster, Northumberland."

    *****

    In July 1258 Richard de Clare and his brother William both fell ill. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes contemporary reports that this was due to an attempted poisoning, "supposedly instigated by King Henry's uncle, William de Valence, earl of Pembroke, in retaliation for Clare's support of the baronial reform movement; and Valence's purported agent in the plot, Clare's seneschal, Walter de Scoteny, was tried and hanged." William died, but Richard survived with the loss of his hair and nails. In 1259 Richard was appointed chief ambassador to the Duke of Brittany, presumably in hopes of frightening the duke by sending a hairless, nailless creature to his court. Three years later, Richard died at Ashenfield, Waltham, Kent, on the 15th, the 16th, or the 22nd of July 1262. It was again bruited about that he had been poisoned, this time by the Queen's uncle Peter of Savoy, but the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, noting that "the annals of Tewkesbury Abbey are the single most valuable literary source for the reconstruction of [de Clare] family history for this period", points out that "the silence of the Tewkesbury account on this point strongly indicates that such rumours were unfounded."

    In a perfectly medieval series of postmortem events, Richard de Clare's body was borne to the Cathedral Church of Christ at Canterbury, where his entrails were buried before the altar of St. Edward the Confessor; it was then taken to the Collegiate Church of Tonbridge, Kent, where his heart was buried; finally, what remained of his body was taken to Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire where it was buried in the choir at his father's right hand.

    Richard married Maud de Lacy about 25 Jan 1238. Maud (daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy) died in 1288-1289. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  2. 3.  Maud de Lacy (daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy); died in 1288-1289.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: Aft 1288
    • Alternate death: Bef 10 Mar 1289

    Children:
    1. Thomas de Clare was born between 1243 and 1248; died on 29 Aug 1287 in Ireland.
    2. 1. Gilbert de Clare was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire, England; died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Rose de Clare was born on 17 Aug 1252; died after 1315; was buried in Church of the Friars Preachers, Pontefract, Yorkshire, England.


Generation: 3

  1. 4.  Gilbert de Clare was born about 1180 (son of Richard de Clare and Amice of Gloucester); died on 25 Oct 1230 in Penrose, Brittany, France; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

    Notes:

    Earl of Hertford. Earl of Gloucester.

    Along with his father, he was among the 25 Magna Carta sureties, as such excommunicated by Innocent III on 16 Dec 1215, despite the fact that he was by then among the group negotiating with the king for peace.

    Fought on the side of Louis of France at the Battle of Lincoln, 19-20 May 1217; taken prisoner by his future father-in-law William Marshal and subsequently released, his lands restored. In later life, led various armies against the Welsh.

    Gilbert married Isabel Marshal on 9 Oct 1217. Isabel (daughter of William Marshal and Isabel de Clare) was born on 9 Oct 1200 in Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died on 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England; was buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hampshire, England. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  2. 5.  Isabel Marshal was born on 9 Oct 1200 in Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales (daughter of William Marshal and Isabel de Clare); died on 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England; was buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hampshire, England.

    Notes:

    Suo jure Countess of Pembroke. Wikipedia: "When Isabel was dying she asked to be buried next to her first husband at Tewkesbury Abbey, but Richard had her interred at Beaulieu Abbey, with her infant son, instead. As a pious gesture, however, he sent her heart, in a silver-gilt casket, to Tewkesbury."

    Children:
    1. Amice de Clare was born on 27 May 1220; died before 21 Jan 1284.
    2. 2. Richard de Clare was born on 4 Aug 1222 in of Clare, Suffolk, England; died in Jul 1262 in Ashenfield, Waltham, Kent, England; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.
    3. Isabel de Clare was born on 2 Nov 1226; died after 10 Jul 1264.

  3. 6.  John de Lacy was born about 1192 in of Pontefract, Yorkshire, England (son of Roger de Lacy and Maud de Clare); died on 22 Jul 1240; was buried in Stanlaw Abbey, Wirrall, Cheshire, England.

    Notes:

    Also called John of Chester. Earl of Lincoln. Magna Carta surety.

    Hereditary Constable of Chester; Keeper of Duninton Castle 1214; Constable of Whitchurch Castle 1233; Privy Councillor 1237; Sheriff of Cheshire 1237; Constable of Chester and Beeston Castles 1237.

    "In 1218 he went on the Fifth Crusade with Earl Ranulf of Chester and was present at the siege of Damietta." [The Ancestry of Dorothea Poyntz, citation details below.]

    John married Margaret de Quincy before 21 Jun 1221. Margaret (daughter of Robert de Quincy and Hawise of Chester) was born before 1217; died before 30 Mar 1266 in Hampstead, Middlesex, England; was buried in Church of the Hospitallers, Clerkenwell, London, England. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  4. 7.  Margaret de Quincy was born before 1217 (daughter of Robert de Quincy and Hawise of Chester); died before 30 Mar 1266 in Hampstead, Middlesex, England; was buried in Church of the Hospitallers, Clerkenwell, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate birth: Abt 1209

    Notes:

    Identified by Wightman as Margaret de Quincy, but his report of her parentage is wrong.

    "Margaret de Quincy, 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure (c. 1206 – March 1266) was a wealthy English noblewoman and heiress having inherited in her own right the Earldom of Lincoln and honours of Bolingbroke from her mother Hawise of Chester, received a dower from the estates of her first husband, and acquired a dower third from the extensive earldom of Pembroke following the death of her second husband, Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke. Her first husband was John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, by whom she had two children. He was created 2nd Earl of Lincoln by right of his marriage to Margaret. Margaret has been described as 'one of the two towering female figures of the mid-13th century'." [Wikipedia]

    Children:
    1. 3. Maud de Lacy died in 1288-1289.
    2. Edmund de Lacy was born about 1230; died on 2 Jun 1258; was buried in Stanlaw Abbey, Wirrall, Cheshire, England.


Generation: 4

  1. 8.  Richard de Clare was born about 1153 in of Clare, Suffolk, England (son of Roger de Clare and Maud de St. Hilary); died between 30 Oct 1217 and 28 Nov 1217.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate birth: Abt 1155
    • Alternate death: Nov 1217
    • Alternate death: 28 Nov 1217

    Notes:

    Earl of Hertford and of Gloucester. Also styled Earl of Clare.

    Along with his son Gilbert, he was one of the 25 Magna Carta sureties.

    Richard married Amice of Gloucester about 1180. Amice (daughter of William fitz Robert and Hawise of Leicester) died on 1 Jan 1225. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  2. 9.  Amice of Gloucester (daughter of William fitz Robert and Hawise of Leicester); died on 1 Jan 1225.

    Notes:

    Also called Amice fitz William.

    According to RA, she was not "recognized" before her death as "Countess of Gloucester," despite CP's assertion to this effect. All contemporary charters and other documents involving her refer to her as countess of Clare, i.e., Hertford.

    Children:
    1. Maud de Clare died in 1213.
    2. Hawise de Clare died after 1234.
    3. 4. Gilbert de Clare was born about 1180; died on 25 Oct 1230 in Penrose, Brittany, France; was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

  3. 10.  William Marshal was born about 1146 (son of John fitz Gilbert and Sybil de Salisbury); died on 14 May 1219 in Caversham, Oxfordshire, England; was buried in Temple Church, London, England.

    Notes:

    Also spelled William le Mareschal. Earl of Pembroke.

    Hereditary Marshal of England; Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1189-94; Sheriff of Sussex 1193-1208; Warden of the Forest of Dean and Constable of St. briavels Castle 1194-1206; Constable of Lillebonne 1202; Protector and Regent of the Kingdom 1216-19; and, in right of his wife, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil and Lord of Leinster. Advisor to King John at Runnymede.

    Wikipedia:

    "William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke [...], also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame le Mareschal; Anglo-Norman: Guillaume le Marechal), was an English (or Anglo-Norman) soldier and statesman. Stephen Langton eulogized him as the 'best knight that ever lived.' He served four kings -- Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III -- and rose from obscurity to become a regent of England for the last of the four, and so one of the most powerful men in Europe. Before him, the hereditary title of 'Marshal' designated head of household security for the king of England; by the time he died, people throughout Europe (not just England) referred to him simply as 'the Marshal'. He received the title of 1st Earl of Pembroke through marriage during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom."

    William married Isabel de Clare in Aug 1189 in London, England. Isabel (daughter of Richard "Strongbow" fitz Gilbert and Eve of Leinster) was born in 1173; died on 7 Mar 1220; was buried in Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire, Wales. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  4. 11.  Isabel de Clare was born in 1173 (daughter of Richard "Strongbow" fitz Gilbert and Eve of Leinster); died on 7 Mar 1220; was buried in Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    Children:
    1. Eve Marshal died between Jan 1242 and 1246.
    2. Joan Marshal died before Nov 1234.
    3. Walter Marshal died on 24 Nov 1245 in Goodrich Castle, Herefordshire, England.
    4. William Marshal was born about 1190; died on 24 Apr 1231; was buried in New Temple Church, London, England.
    5. Maud Marshal was born in 1192; died on 27 Mar 1248; was buried in Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire, Wales.
    6. 5. Isabel Marshal was born on 9 Oct 1200 in Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died on 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England; was buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hampshire, England.
    7. Sybil Marshal was born about 1204; died before 1238.

  5. 12.  Roger de Lacy was born about 1165 in of Halton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England (son of John fitz Richard and Alice fitz Roger); died on 1 Oct 1211; was buried in Stanlaw Abbey, Wirrall, Cheshire, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: Jan 1212

    Notes:

    Also called Roger of Chester, Roger Helle, Roger de Lisours.

    Hereditary Constable of Cheshire; Sheriff of Lancashire. Sheriff of York and Chester, 1204-10. Was at the storming of Acre, 1191. "His raids against the Welsh are said to have earned him the nickname 'Roger of Hell.'" [The Ancestry of Dorothea Poyntz]

    Roger married Maud de Clare. Maud (daughter of Richard de Clare and Amice of Gloucester) died in 1213. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  6. 13.  Maud de Clare (daughter of Richard de Clare and Amice of Gloucester); died in 1213.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: Aft 10 Jul 1220

    Children:
    1. (Unknown daughter of Roger de Lacy)
    2. 6. John de Lacy was born about 1192 in of Pontefract, Yorkshire, England; died on 22 Jul 1240; was buried in Stanlaw Abbey, Wirrall, Cheshire, England.

  7. 14.  Robert de Quincy (son of Saher de Quincy and Margaret of Leicester); died after 20 May 1217 in London, England; was buried in Church of the Hospitallers, Clerkenwell, London, England.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: Bef 1232

    Notes:

    First of his name. Not to be confused with his younger brother Robert de Quincy (1200-1257).

    "The circumstances of his death by misadventure -- he was accidentally poisoned through medicine prepared by a Cistercian monk -- are fully described by Giraldus [Brackley Deeds]. His heart was bur. with that of his mother at Brackley." [Complete Peerage]

    Robert married Hawise of Chester between 1197 and 1200. Hawise (daughter of Hugh of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort) was born in 1180; died before 19 Feb 1243. [Group Sheet] [Family Chart]


  8. 15.  Hawise of Chester was born in 1180 (daughter of Hugh of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort); died before 19 Feb 1243.

    Other Events:

    • Alternate death: Between 1241 and 1243
    • Alternate death: 6 Jun 1241
    • Alternate death: Bef 3 Mar 1243
    • Alternate death: 6 Jun 1243

    Notes:

    Suo jure Countess of Lincoln.

    Children:
    1. 7. Margaret de Quincy was born before 1217; died before 30 Mar 1266 in Hampstead, Middlesex, England; was buried in Church of the Hospitallers, Clerkenwell, London, England.