Nielsen Hayden genealogy

Thomas Randolph

Male - 1332


Personal Information    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name Thomas Randolph  [1
    Gender Male 
    Died 20 Jul 1332  Musselburgh, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Buried Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Person ID I27326  Ancestry of PNH, TNH, and others | Ancestor of JMF, Ancestor of TWK
    Last Modified 21 Mar 2020 

    Father Thomas Randolph,   b. Abt 1255, of Stichill, Roxburghshire, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1293  (Age ~ 39 years) 
    Mother (Unknown half-sister of Robert de Brus, King of Scotland),   b. Abt 1262 
    Family ID F16320  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Isabel Stewart,   d. Aft 16 Jul 1351 
    Children 
    +1. Isabel Randolph,   b. Abt 1320,   d. Aft 1360  (Age ~ 41 years)
    Last Modified 21 Mar 2020 
    Family ID F16314  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • Earl of Moray.

      From Wikipedia, accessed 21 Mar 2020:

      Thomas supported Robert [de Brus] in his attempt to take the throne, and was present at his uncle's coronation in 1306. He was probably knighted by the king then or shortly after. Following the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Methven, he was taken prisoner by the English, coming under the custody first of Sir Adam Gordon and then of the Earl of Lincoln. During his confinement he joined the English cause, and remained attached to them until he was captured by Sir James Douglas in 1307, and persuaded to rejoin the Scottish side. His defection came to the attention of Edward II of England, who forfeited all his lands, bestowing them on his favourite Hugh le Despencer.

      In 1312 Robert created him Earl of Moray, and he became ruler of a large swathe of land in the north of Scotland, far exceeding his southern possessions. He was also made lord of the Isle of Man [...] Around this time he became one of Robert's most trusted lieutenants, and he seems to have accompanied him on most of his campaigns. His most famous achievement was on 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, and stood on top of an apparently unscalable rock. Amongst Moray's men was William Francis, the son of a former governor of the castle, who knew of a secret path up the rock. Moray used this path to reach the castle, and successfully retook it for the Scots.

      Moray played an important role in the Scottish victory at the Battle of Bannockburn, where he commanded one of the three divisions (schiltrons) of the infantry, the others being commanded by King Robert and Edward Bruce, the king's brother. [...]

      In 1315 Moray accompanied Edward Bruce, the king's brother, during his invasion of Ireland. He was one of the principal leaders in the war against the English settlers in Ireland. He returned twice to Scotland during the war to obtain reinforcements and to get Robert's personal presence in Ireland.

      Moray's name appears directly after Robert's on the famous Declaration of Arbroath, which was sent to the Pope by the nobles of Scotland to persuade him to recognise Scotland as an independent nation. Later, in 1324, he was sent to meet the Pope in person at his court in Avignon. At this meeting he successfully persuaded the Pope to recognise Robert as King of Scots. The next year the Pope wrote to Moray declaring his hope and trust in his efforts to make peace between England and Scotland, and gave permission for him to visit the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

      Moray was again sent to France in 1325, this time to persuade King Charles IV to sign the Treaty of Corbeil renewing the Franco-Scottish alliance, which he did successfully.

      After his return to Scotland he had a commanding role in the Battle of Stanhope Park against the English. The English suffered a humiliating defeat, and were forced to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, by which Scotland's independence was finally acknowledged.

      During the King's final years, Moray had been a constant companion, and had superintended the household of the young heir to the throne, David. Before his death, Robert decreed that Moray would serve as regent for David, who was only five years old when he succeeded as king. Moray performed this role justly and wisely, but died at Musselburgh three years later while on his way to repel an invasion by Edward Balliol and his supporters. At the time it was said that he had been poisoned by the English, but some modern historians believe that it is more likely that he died from a kidney stone.

      ——

      The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography says that the symptoms leading to his death more strongly suggest liver cancer.

  • Sources 
    1. [S128] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant ed. Vicary Gibbs, H. A. Doubleday, Duncan Warrand, Howard de Walden, Geoffrey H. White and R. S. Lea. 2nd edition. 14 volumes (1-13, but volume 12 spanned two books), London, The St. Catherine Press, 1910-1959. Volume 14, "Addenda & Corrigenda," ed. Peter W. Hammond, Gloucestershire, Sutton Publishing, 1998.

    2. [S76] The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004-ongoing.